© 2019–2024 Online Olympiad in Linguistics© 2019–2024 Online Olympiad in Linguistics

Contests

Online Olympiad in Linguistics 2024 — Student Edition

Problems & Answers

1. Forest Enets

Here are some sentences in Forest Enets and their English translations:

  1. Aga dyotu bu entʃuguth nɛbimunu.
    The big goose hears him running from the people.
  2. Aga odu’ soitha dyad kanyipi.
    The big boats went to the good place.
  3. Budu’ mudy dyuripi dyotu texuth nɛbibi.
    They told me that the goose ran from the reindeer (sg).
  4. Mudy bu dyurith’ bu kanyimunupi.
    I tell him that they heard him going.
  5. Mudy entʃu’ kothuxuth moth’.
    I take the people from the snowstorm.
  6. Mudyna’ onai bathan bodun dyuriŋaba’.
    We speak Enets in the tundra.
  7. Onai entʃi’ oduxuth tomunu’.
    They hear the Enets person coming from the boat.
  8. Onai entʃu’ bodun nɛbimunuthpi.
    I heard the Enets people running in the tundra.
  9. Onai te’ budu’ kathapi.
    The real reindeer (pl) killed them.
  10. Te sɛsurguth nɛbimunubapi.
    We heard the reindeer (sg) running from the foxes.
  11. Uu odu onai entʃiguth modbi.
    You (sg) took the boat from the Enets person.
  12. Uuda’ sɛsur’ odud mora’.
    You (pl) take the foxes to the boat.

(a) What is the literal translation of "Enets people" in Forest Enets?

(b) Translate into English:

(c) Translate into Forest Enets:

(!) Forest Enets belongs to the Samoyedic branch of the Uralic language family. It is spoken by 36 native speakers in Northern Siberia. ɛ is a vowel; , th, dy, ny, ŋ, are consonants. sg = singular (one person), pl = plural (two or more people)

— Panawat Tiacharoen, Vlad A. Neacșu

2. Biloxi

Given below are some expressions in Biloxi and their English translations in arbitrary order:

1.

ãya

2.

ãya săhi

3.

ăde

4.

ădetcgo ti

5.

ădegădeg(h)ăyi

6.

ămăs(i)gitêhăyi ãya 

7.

ãya ixi 

8.

ăgăti si

9.

ăgăti ăde ti

10.

ămăs(i)păsõti

11.

ăxisăhi

12.

ăxisăhi si

13.

tănêksãyade

14.

ãdĕs(i)xi

15.

săhi

16.

tãs(i)păsõti

A.

church

B.

northern mockingbird

C.

rattlesnake

D.

language, speech

E.

Solanum nigrum

F.

first people’s language

G.

library

H.

people

I.

long time

J.

money

K.

blacksmiths

L.

gold

M.

knife

N.

leaders

O.

yellow paper

P.

Native Americans

Note that in Biloxi certain sounds are deleted in certain contexts. When this occurs, the missing sounds will be included in brackets. You will not be graded on whether you include them.

(a) Determine the correct correspondences.

(b) Translate into English:

(c) Translate into Biloxi:

(!) Biloxi was a Siouan language spoken by the Biloxi tribe in present-day Mississippi, Louisiana, and southeastern Texas. By 1934, the last native speaker, Emma Jackson, was in her eighties. tc is a consonant; ă, ĕ, and ê are vowels; a tilde above a vowel (e.g. ã) denotes nasalization.

The northern mockingbird is a North American bird well-known for its ability to mimic other birds' songs, animals' calls, and even human speech. A rattlesnake is a venomous snake regarded as an entity of power by the speakers of the B language. Solanum nigrum is a flowering plant known for its pointed leaves. A blacksmith is a person who uses a hammer to shape pieces of iron and other metals into usable objects.

— Pratyush Vempati, Panawat Tiacharoen

3. Okinawan

Below are some sentences in Okinawan and their English translations. The words between asterisks are focused, meaning they convey information new to the listener.

  1. riicee hwahwanudu çiçicuru
    As for the lychee, *the mother* pokes it.
  2. ʔacoodoo kuree çigan
    As for the merchant, he does not pour this thing.
  3. kuree hwiibudu tacuru
    As for this thing, it cooks *the snake*.
  4. hwiiboo biwaa nkan
    As for the snake, it does not peel the loquat.
  5. hwahwanu sinjaku çizun
    The mother pours the decoction.
  6. Qcunu kuri ncan
    The person peeled this thing.

(a) The following sentences in Okinawan each contain exactly one mistake. Write the correct sentences:

  1. sinjakoo ʔacoodunu çizaru
    As for the decoction, *the merchant* poured it.

  1. kuree ʔanda çigan
    As for this thing, it does not pour the oil.

(b) Translate into English:

(c) You are given the following words in Okinawan and their English translations:

ʔucinaaʔisja

traditional doctor

ʔnni

rice plant

duku

poison

hazun

makes

kizun

stirs

Translate into Okinawan:

(!) Okinawan belongs to the Japonic language family. It is spoken by approx. 95,000 people in the southern portion of the Island of Okinawa. ç ~ ts in cats, c ~ ch in church, hw ~ f in father, j ~ y in yes, Q indicates lengthening of the following consonant, z ~ j in judge, ʔ is the pause in uh-oh, double vowels indicate length.

Lychee and loquat are types of fruit. A decoction refers to extracts, especially pertaining to ones from plants, used in medicine.

— Wong Tok Shing Henry

4. Abelam

Here are some numerals in Abelam and their values:

29

vyndyk vyndyk tammba tammba vyndyk vyndyk
[not *tammba tammba vyndyk vyndyk, see (a)]

67

vyndyk tammba kymbyk tammba vyndyk

224

vyndyk vyndyk vyndyk tammba tammba vyndyk vyndyk tammba vyndyk vyndyk

852

tammba kymbyk vyndyk vyndyk tammba tammba vyndyk tammba tammba vyndyk

974

tammba vyndyk vyndyk vyndyk vyndyk tammba tammba vyndyk tammba vyndyk vyndyk tammba vyndyk vyndyk

2024

vyndyk vyndyk tammba vyndyk vyndyk tammba tammba vyndyk vyndyk tammba vyndyk vyndyk

(a) The numerals for the numbers from x to 29, inclusive, are the only numerals formed irregularly in Abelam. Although one might expect 29 to be *tammba tammba vyndyk vyndyk based on the regular system, it is in fact vyndyk vyndyk tammba tammba vyndyk vyndyk.

What is x? Write it in both digits and Abelam.

(b) Write in digits in all possible ways:

(c) Write in Abelam the whole number n such that × n = kymbyk tammba nakyrak tammba nakyrak.

(d) Write in language D:

(!) Abelam belongs to the Sepik language family. It is spoken by approx. 33,000 people in Papua New Guinea.

— Arul Kolla

Answer key: hideshow